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ePrivacy Regulation

Current status: Negotiating mandate agreed

The Proposal for a Regulation Concerning the Respect for Private Life and the Protection of Personal Data in Electronic Communications and repealing Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications) ('the Draft ePrivacy Regulation') is a draft piece of EU legislation that has been designed to update requirements related to privacy and electronic communications and harmonise these with the General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679) ('GDPR'). The Draft ePrivacy Regulation will replace the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications (2002/58/EC) (as amended) ('the ePrivacy Directive').

The Draft ePrivacy Regulation was originally proposed in 2017, following which there have been several discussions and new drafts released. Negotiations are still ongoing and it remains to be seen if and when the Draft ePrivacy Regulation will be finalised and become law.

The Council of the European Union announced, on 10 February 2021, that its Member States had agreed on a negotiating mandate and that the Portuguese Presidency of the Council will now commence negotiations with the European Parliament on the agreed text.

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Key Resources

The Presidency of the Council of the European Union released this revised text of the Draft ePrivacy Regulation on 10 February 2021.

Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL concerning the respect for private life and the protection of personal data in electronic communications and repealing Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications)

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Articles 16 and 114 thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission, After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee1 9,

Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor,

Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure,

Whereas:

(1) Article 7 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union ("the Charter") protects the fundamental right of everyone to the respect for private and family life, home and communications. Respect for the confidentiality of one’s communications is an essential dimension of this right, applying both to natural and legal persons. Confidentiality of electronic communications ensures that information exchanged between parties and the external elements of such communication, including when the information has been sent, from where, to whom, is not to be revealed to anyone other than to the parties involved in a communication. The principle of confidentiality should apply to current and future means of communication, including calls, internet access, instant messaging applications, e-mail, internet phone calls and personal messaging provided through social media.

(2) The content of electronic communications may reveal highly sensitive information about the natural persons involved in the communication, from personal experiences and emotions to medical conditions, sexual preferences and political views, the disclosure of which could result in personal and social harm, economic loss or embarrassment. Similarly, metadata derived from electronic communications may also reveal very sensitive and personal information. These metadata includes the numbers called, the websites visited, geographical location, the time, date and duration when an individual made a call etc., allowing precise conclusions to be drawn regarding the private lives of the persons involved in the electronic communication, such as their social relationships, their habits and activities of everyday life, their interests, tastes etc.

(2a) Regulation (EU) 2016/679 regulates the protection of personal data. This Regulation protects in addition the respect for private life and communications. The provisions of this Regulation particularise and complement the general rules on the protection of personal data laid down in Regulation (EU) 2016/679. This Regulation therefore does not lower the level of protection enjoyed by natural persons under Regulation (EU) 2016/679. The provisions particularise Regulation (EU) 2016/679 as regards personal data by translating its principles into specific rules. If no specific rules are established in this Regulation, Regulation (EU) 2016/679 should apply to any processing of data that qualify as personal data. The provisions complement Regulation (EU) 2016/679 by setting forth rules regarding subject matters that are not within the scope of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, such as the protection of the rights of end-users who are legal persons. Processing of electronic communications data by providers of electronic communications services and networks should only be permitted in accordance with this Regulation. This Regulation does not impose any obligations on the end-user End-users who are legal persons may have rights conferred by Regulation (EU) 2016/679 to the extent specifically required by this Regulation

(3) Electronic communications data may also reveal information concerning legal entities, such as business secrets or other sensitive information that has economic value and the protection of which allows legal persons to conduct their business, supporting among other innovation. Therefore, the provisions of this Regulation should in principle apply to both natural and legal persons. Furthermore, this Regulation should ensure that, where necessary, provisions of the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council[1], also apply mutatis mutandis to end-users who are legal persons. This includes the definition of provisions on consent under Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

(3a) This Regulation should not affect national law regulating for instance the conclusion or the validity of a contract. Similarly, this Regulation should not affect national law in relation to determining who has the legal power to represent legal persons in any dealings with third parties or in legal proceedings.

(4) Pursuant to Article 8(1) of the Charter and Article 16(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her. Regulation (EU) 2016/679 lays down rules relating to the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and rules relating to the free movement of personal data. Electronic communications data may include personal data as defined in Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

(6) While the principles and main provisions of Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council4 remain generally sound, that Directive has not fully kept pace with the evolution of technological and market reality, resulting in an inconsistent or insufficient effective protection of privacy and confidentiality in relation to electronic communications. Those developments include the entrance on the market of electronic communications services that from a consumer perspective are substitutable to traditional services, but do not have to comply with the same set of rules. Another development concerns new techniques that allow for tracking of online behaviour of end-users, which are not covered by Directive 2002/58/EC. Directive 2002/58/EC should therefore be repealed and replaced by this Regulation.

(7) The Member States should be allowed, within the limits of this Regulation, to maintain or introduce national provisions to further specify and clarify the application of the rules of this Regulation in order to ensure an effective application and interpretation of those rules. Therefore, the margin of discretion, which Member States have in this regard, should maintain a balance between the protection of private life and personal data and the free movement of electronic communications data.

(7a) This Regulation does not apply to the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms related to activities which fall outside the scope of Union law, and in any event measures, processing activities and operations concerning national security and defence, regardless of who is carrying out those operations, whether it is a public authority or a private operator acting at the request of a public authority.

(8) This Regulation should apply to providers of electronic communications services, and to providers of publicly available directories. This Regulation should also apply to natural and legal persons who use electronic communications services to send direct marketing commercial communications or make use of processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment or collect information processed by or emitted by or stored in end-users’ terminal equipment.

(8aaa) Furthermore, this Regulation should apply regardless of whether the processing of electronic communications data or personal data of end-users who are in the Union takes place in the Union or not, or of whether the service provider or person processing such data is established or located in the Union or not.

(8aa) Some end-users, for example providers of payment services or payment systems, process as recipients their electronic communications data for different purposes or request a third party to process their electronic communications data on their behalf. It is also important that end-users, including legal entities, have the possibility to take the necessary measures to secure their services, networks, employees and customers from security threats or incidents.

Information security services may play an important role in ensuring the security of end-users' digital sphere. For example, an end-user as an information society service provider may process its electronic communications data, or may request a third party, such as a provider of security technologies and services, to process that end-user's electronic communications data on its behalf, for purposes such as ensuring network and information security, including the prevention, monitoring and termination of fraud, unauthorised access and Distributed Denial of Service attacks, or facilitating efficient delivery of website content. Processing of their electronic communications data by the end-users concerned, or by a third party entrusted by the end-users concerned to process their electronic communications data after receipt on their behalf, is should not be covered by this Regulation. For the purpose of protecting the end- user’s terminal equipment processing upon receipt, including also just before receipt, by a third party entrusted should not be covered by this Regulation.

(8a) This Regulation does not apply to the electronic communications data of deceased persons. Member States may provide for rules regarding the processing of electronic communications data of deceased persons.

(10) Radio equipment and its software which is placed on the internal market in the Union, must comply with Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council5. This Regulation should not affect the applicability of any of the requirements of Directive 2014/53/EU nor the power of the Commission to adopt delegated acts pursuant to Directive 2014/53/EU requiring that specific categories or classes of radio equipment incorporate safeguards to ensure that personal data and privacy of end-users are protected.

(11) The services used for communications purposes, and the technical means of their delivery, have evolved considerably. End-users increasingly replace traditional voice telephony, text messages (SMS) and electronic mail conveyance services in favour of functionally equivalent online services such as Voice over IP, messaging services and web-based e-mail services. In order to ensure an effective and equal protection of end-users when using functionally equivalent services, this Regulation uses the definition of electronic communications services set forth in the Directive (EU) 2018/1972 [1]6. That definition encompasses not only internet access services and services consisting wholly or partly in the conveyance of signals but also interpersonal communications services, which may or may not be number-based, such as for example, Voice over IP, messaging services and web-based e-mail services.

(11a) The protection of confidentiality of communications is crucial also as regards interpersonal communications services that are ancillary to another service; therefore, the processing of electronic communications data in the context of the provision of such type of minor ancillary services should be covered by this Regulation.

(11aa) In all the circumstances where electronic communication is taking place between a finite, that is to say not potentially unlimited, number of end-users which is determined by the sender of the communications, e.g. any messaging application allowing two or more people to connect and communicate, such services constitute interpersonal communications services. Conversely, a communications channel does not constitute an interpersonal communications service when it does not enable direct interpersonal and interactive exchange of information via electronic communications networks between a finite number of persons, whereby the persons initiating or participating in the communication determine its recipient(s). This is for example the case when the entity providing the communications channel is at the same time a communicating party, such as a company that operates a communications channel for customer care that allows customers solely to communicate with the company in question. Also, where access to an electronic communications is available for anyone, e.g. communications in an electronic communications channel in online games which is open to all persons playing the game, such channel does not constitute an interpersonal communications feature. This reflects the end-users' expectations regarding the confidentiality of a service.

(12) The use of machine-to-machine and Internet of Things services, that is to say services involving an automated transfer of data and information between devices or software-based applications with limited or no human interaction, is emerging. In order to ensure full protection of the rights to privacy and confidentiality of communications, and to promote a trusted and secure Internet of Things in the digital single market, this Regulation, in particular the requirements relating to the confidentiality of communications, should apply to the transmission of such services. The transmission of machine-to-machine or Internet of Things services regularly involves the conveyance of signals via an electronic communications network and, hence, constitutes an electronic communications service. This Regulation should apply to the provider of the transmission service if that transmission is carried out via a publicly available electronic communications service or network. Conversely, where the transmission of machine-to-machine or Internet of Things services is carried out via a private or closed network such as a closed factory network, this Regulation should not apply. Typically, providers of machine-to-machine or Internet of Things services operate at the application layer (on top of electronic communications services). These service providers and their customers who use IoT services are in this respect end-users, and not providers of the electronic communication service and therefore benefit from the protection of confidentiality of their electronic communications data. Specific safeguards could also be adopted under sectorial legislation, as for instance Directive 2014/53/EU.

(13) The development of fast and efficient wireless technologies has fostered the increasing availability for the public of internet access via wireless networks accessible by anyone in public and semi-private spaces such as 'hotspots' situated at different places within a city, department stores, shopping malls and hospitals. To the extent that those communications networks are provided to an undefined group of end-users, regardless if these networks are secured with passwords or not, the confidentiality of the communications transmitted through such networks should be protected. The fact that wireless electronic communications services may be ancillary to other services should not stand in the way of ensuring the protection of confidentiality of communications data and application of this Regulation. Therefore, this Regulation should apply to electronic communications data using publicly available electronic communications services and public electronic communications networks. In contrast, this Regulation should not apply to closed groups of end-users such as home (fixed or wireless) networks or corporate networks or networks to which the, access is limited to a pre-defined group of end-users, e.g. to family members or, members of a corporation. Similarly, this Regulation does not apply to data processed by services or networks used for purely internal communications purposes between public institutions, courts, court administrations, financial, social and employment administrations. As soon as electronic communications data is transferred from such a closed group network to a public electronic communications network, this Regulation applies to such data, including when it is M2M/IoT and personal/home assistant data. The provisions of this Regulation regarding the protection of end-users' terminal equipment information also apply in the case of terminal equipment connected to a closed group network such as a home (fixed or wireless) network which in turn is connected to a public electronic communications network.

(14) Electronic communications data should be defined in a sufficiently broad and technology neutral way so as to encompass any information concerning the content transmitted or exchanged (electronic communications content) and the information concerning an end-user of electronic communications services processed for the purposes of transmitting, distributing or enabling the exchange of electronic communications content; including data to trace and identify the source and destination of a communication, geographical location and the date, time, duration and the type of communication. Whether such signals and the related data are conveyed by wire, radio, optical or electromagnetic means, including satellite networks, cable networks, fixed (circuit- and packet-switched, including internet) and mobile terrestrial networks, electricity cable systems, the data related to such signals should be considered as electronic communications metadata and therefore be subject to the provisions of this Regulation. Electronic communications metadata may include information that is part of the subscription to the service when such information is processed for the purposes of transmitting, distributing or exchanging electronic communications content.

(15) Electronic communications data should be treated as confidential. This means that any interference of electronic communications data, whether directly by human intervention or through the intermediation of automated processing by machines, without the consent of the communicating parties should be prohibited. Interception of electronic communications data may occur, for example, when someone other than the communicating parties, listens to calls, reads, scans or stores the content of electronic communications, or the associated metadata for purposes other than the exchange of communications. Interception also occurs when third parties monitor websites visited, timing of the visits, interaction with others, etc., without the consent of the end-user concerned. As technology evolves, the technical ways to engage in interception have also increased. Such ways may range from the installation of equipment that gathers data from terminal equipment over targeted areas, such as the so-called IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) catchers, to programs and techniques that, for example, surreptitiously monitor browsing habits for the purpose of creating end-user profiles. Other examples of interception include capturing payload data or content data from unencrypted wireless networks and routers, including browsing habits without the end-users' consent.

(15aa) In order to ensure the confidentiality of electronic communications data, providers of electronic communications services should apply security measures in accordance with Article 40 of Directive (EU) 2018/1972 and Article 32 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

(15aaa) Moreover, trade secrets are protected in accordance with Directive (EU) 2016/943.

(15a) The prohibition of interception of electronic communications content under this Regulation should apply until receipt of the content of the electronic communication by the intended addressee, i.e. during the end-to-end exchange of electronic communications content between end-users. Receipt implies that the end-user gains control over, and has the possiblity to interact with, the individual electronic communications content, for example by recording, storing, printing or otherwise processing such data, including for security purposes. The exact moment of the receipt of electronic communications content may depend on the type of electronic communications service that is provided. For instance, depending on the technology used, a voice call may be completed as soon as either of the end-users ends the call. For electronic mail or instant messaging, depending on the technology used, the moment of receipt may be as soon as the addressee has collected the message, typically from the server of the electronic communications service provider. Upon receipt, electronic communications content and related metadata should be erased or made anonymous in such a manner that no natural or legal person is identifiable, by the provider of the electronic communications service except when processing is permitted under this Regulation After electronic communications content has been received by the intended end-user or end-users, it may be recorded or stored by those end-users. End-users are free to mandate a third party to record or store such data on their behalf.

(16) The prohibition of processing, including storage of communications is not intended to prohibit any automatic, intermediate and transient processing, including storage of this information insofar as this takes place for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission in the electronic communications network. Processing of electronic communications data by providers of electronic communications services and networks should only be permitted in accordance with this Regulation. It should not prohibit the processing of electronic communications data without consent of the end-user to ensure the security, including the availability, authenticity, integrity or confidentiality, of the electronic communications services, including for example checking security threats such as the presence of malware or viruses, or the identification of phishing. Security measures are essential to prevent personal data breaches in electronic communications. Spam electronic messages may also affect the availability of the respective services and could potentially impact the performance of networks and services, which justifies the processing of electronic communications data to mitigate this risk. Such security measures, including anti-spam measures, should be proportionate and should be performed in the least intrusive manner. Providers of electronic communications services are encouraged to offer end-users the possibility to check electronic messages deemed as spam in order to ascertain whether they were indeed spam.

(16a)  The protection of the content of electronic communications pertains to the essence of the fundamental right to respect for private and family life, home and communications protected under Article 7 of the Charter. Any interference with the content of electronic communications should be allowed only under very clear defined conditions, for specific purposes and be subject to adequate safeguards against abuse. This Regulation provides for the possibility of providers of electronic communications services to process electronic communications content in transit, with the informed consent of all the end-users concerned. For example, providers may offer services that entail the scanning of emails to remove certain pre-defined material. Given the sensitivity of the content of communications, this Regulation sets forth a presumption that the processing of such content data will result in high risks to the rights and freedoms of natural persons. When processing such type of content, the provider of the electronic communications service should consult the supervisory authority if necessary pursuant to Article 36 (1) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Such consultation should be in accordance with Article 36 (2) and (3) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. The presumption does not encompass the processing of content to provide a service requested by the end-user where the end-user has consented to such processing and it is carried out for the purposes and duration strictly necessary and proportionate for such service.

(16b) Services that facilitate end-users everyday life such as index functionality, personal assistant, translation services and services that enable more inclusion for persons with disabilities such as text-to-speech services are emerging. Processing of electronic communication content might be necessary also for some functionalities used normally in services for individual use, such as searching and organising the messages in email or messaging applications. Therefore, as regards the processing of electronic communications content for services requested by the end-user for their own individual use, consent should only be requested required from the end-user requesting the service taking into account that the processing should not adversely affect fundamental rights and interest of another end-user concerned. Processing of electronic communications data should be allowed with the prior consent of the end-user concerned and to the extent necessary for the provision of the requested functionalities.

(16c) Providers of electronic communications services may, for example, obtain the consent of the end-user for the processing of electronic communications data, at the time of the conclusion of the contract, and any moment in time thereafter. In some cases, the legal person having subscribed to the electronic communications service may allow a natural person, such as an employee, to make use of the service in accordance with Regulation 2016/679.

(17) The processing of electronic communications metadata can be useful for businesses, consumers and society as a whole. Vis-à-vis Directive 2002/58/EC, this Regulation broadens the possibilities for providers of electronic communications services to process electronic communications metadata. However, end-users attach great importance to the confidentiality of their communications, including their online activities, and they also want to control the use of electronic communications metadata for purposes other than conveying the communication. Therefore, providers of electronic communications networks and services should be permitted to process electronic communications metadata after having obtained the end- users' consent. In addition, those providers should be permitted to process an end-user’s electronic communications metadata where it is necessary for the provision of an electronic communications service based on a contract with that end-user and for billing related to that contract. Examples of commercial usages of electronic communications metadata by providers of electronic communications services may include the provision of heat maps; a graphical representation of data using colours to indicate the presence of individuals. To display the traffic movements in certain directions during a certain period of time, an identifier is necessary to link the positions of individuals at certain time intervals. This identifier would be missing if anonymous data were to be used and such movement could not be displayed. Such usage of electronic communications metadata could, for example, benefit public authorities and public transport operators to define where to develop new infrastructure, based on the usage of and pressure on the existing structure. Where a type of processing of electronic communications metadata, in particular using new technologies, and taking into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing, is likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons, a data protection impact assessment and, as the case may be, a consultation of the supervisory authority should take place prior to the processing, in accordance with Articles 35 and 36 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

(17aa) Further processing for purposes other than for which the metadata where initially collected may take place without the consent of the end-users concerned, provided that such processing is compatible with the purpose for which the metadata are initially collected, certain additional conditions and safeguards set out by this Regulation are complied with, including the requirement to genuinely anonymise the result before sharing the analysis with third parties. As end-users attach great value to the confidentiality of their communications, including their physical movements, such data cannot be used to determine the nature or characteristics on an end-user or to build a profile of an end-user, in order to, for example, avoid that the data is used for segmentation purposes, to monitor the behaviour of a specific end-user or to draw conclusions concerning the private life of an end-user. For the same reason, the end-user must be provided with information about these processing activities taking place and given the right to object to such processing.

(17a) The processing of electronic communications metadata should also be regarded to be permitted where it is necessary in order to protect an interest which is essential for the life of the end-users who are natural persons or that of another natural person. Processing of electronic communications metadata for the protection of vital interests of the end-user may include for instance processing necessary for humanitarian purposes, including for monitoring epidemics and their spread or in humanitarian emergencies, in particular natural and man- made disasters. Processing of electronic communications metadata of an end- user for the protection of the vital interest of an end-user who is a natural person should in principle take place only where the processing cannot be manifestly based on another legal basis and where the protection of such interests cannot be ensured without that processing.

(17b) Processing of electronic communication metadata for scientific research or statistical purposes could also be considered to be permitted processing. This type of processing should be subject to safeguards to ensure privacy of the end- users by employing appropriate security measures such as encryption and pseudonymisation. In addition, end-users who are natural persons should be given the right to object. Processing for statistical counting and scientific purposes should only result in aggregated data, and not be used in support of measures or decisions regarding any particular natural person. In particular, such data should not be used to determine the nature or characteristics of an end-user, to build an individual profile or to draw conclusions concerning an end-user private life. Such usage of electronic communications metadata could, for example, benefit public authorities and public transport operators to define where to develop new infrastructure, based on the usage of and pressure on the existing structure. Such usage should also include processing that is necessary for the development, production and dissemination of official national or European statistics in accordance with national or Union law, to the extent necessary for this purpose.

(18) End-users may consent to the processing of their metadata to receive specific services such as protection services against fraudulent activities (by analysing usage data, location and customer account in real time). In the digital economy, services are often supplied against counter-performance other than money, for instance by end- users being exposed to advertisements. For the purposes of this Regulation, consent of an end-user, regardless of whether the latter is a natural or a legal person, should have the same meaning and be subject to the same conditions as the data subject's consent under Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Basic broadband internet access and voice communications services are to be considered as essential services for individuals to be able to communicate and participate to the benefits of the digital economy. Consent for processing electronic communications data from internet or voice communication usage will not be valid if the data subject end-user has no genuine and free choice or is unable to refuse or withdraw consent without detriment.

(19) Third parties are legal or natural person that do not provide an electronic communications service to the end-user concerned. However, sometimes the same legal or natural person can also provide different kind of services to the same end-user, for example information society service such as cloud storage. With respect to the provision of this other service, the same legal person is normally deemed to be a third party. If the other service is necessary for the provision of the electronic communication service, such as automatic storage of the messages in the cloud by web-based email, the provider of such a service normally is not deemed to be a third party.

(20) Terminal equipment of end-users of electronic communications networks and any information relating to the usage of such terminal equipment, in particular where such information is processed by, stored in, or collected from such equipment, or where information is collected from it or processed in order to enable it to connect to another device and or network equipment, are part of the end-user's private sphere, including the privacy of one’s communications, and require protection in accordance with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Given that such equipment contains or processes information that may reveal details of an individual's emotional, political, social complexities, including the content of communications, pictures, the location of individuals by accessing the device’s GPS capabilities, contact lists, and other information already stored in the device, the information related to such equipment requires enhanced privacy protection. Furthermore, the so-called spyware, web bugs, hidden identifiers, tracking cookies and other similar unwanted tracking tools can enter end-user's terminal equipment without their knowledge in order to gain access to information, to store hidden information and to trace the activities. Information related to the end-user’s device may also be collected remotely for the purpose of identification and tracking, using techniques such as the so-called ‘device fingerprinting’, often without the knowledge of the end-user, and may seriously intrude upon the privacy of these end-users. Techniques that surreptitiously monitor the actions of end-users, for example by tracking their activities online or the location of their terminal equipment, or subvert the operation of the end-users’ terminal equipment pose a serious threat to the privacy of end-users. Therefore, the use of processing and storage capabilities and the collection of information from end-user's terminal equipment should be allowed only with the end-user's consent and or for other specific and transparent purposes as laid down in this Regulation. The information collected from end-user’s terminal equipment can often contain personal data.

(20aa) In light of the principle of purpose limitation laid down in Article 5 (1) (b) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, it should be possible to process in accordance with this Regulation data collected from the end-user's terminal equipment for purposes compatible with the purpose for which it was collected from the end- user’s terminal equipment.

(20aaa) The responsibility for obtaining consent for the storage of a cookie or similar identifier lies on the entity that makes use of processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment or collects information from end-users’ terminal equipment, such as an information society service provider or ad network provider. Such entities may request another party to obtain consent on their behalf. The end-user's consent to storage of a cookie or similar identifier may also entail consent for the subsequent readings of the cookie in the context of a revisit to the same website domain initially visited by the end-user.

(20aaaa) In contrast to access to website content provided against monetary payment, where access is provided without direct monetary payment and is made dependent on the consent of the end-user to the storage and reading of cookies for additional purposes, requiring such consent would normally not be considered as depriving the end-user of a genuine choice if the end-user is able to choose between services, on the basis of clear, precise and user-friendly information about the purposes of cookies and similar techniques, between an offer that includes consenting to the use of cookies for additional purposes on the one hand, and an equivalent offer by the same provider that does not involve consenting to data use for additional purposes, on the other hand. Conversely, in some cases, making access to website content dependent on consent to the use of such cookies may be considered, in the presence of a clear imbalance between the end-user and the service provider as depriving the end-user of a genuine choice. This would normally be the case for websites providing certain services, such as those provided by public authorities. Similarly, such imbalance could exist where the end-user has only few or no alternatives to the service, and thus has no real choice as to the usage of cookies for instance in case of service providers in a dominant position.

To the extent that use is made of processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment and information from end-users’ terminal equipment is collected for other purposes than for what is necessary for the purpose of providing an electronic communication service or for the provision of the service requested, consent should be required. In such a scenario, consent should normally be given by the end-user who requests the service from the provider of the service.

(20a) End-users are often requested to provide consent to the storage and access to stored data in their terminal equipment, due to the ubiquitous use of tracking cookies and similar tracking technologies. As a result, end-users may be overloaded with requests to provide consent. This can lead to a situation where consent request information is no longer read and the protection offered by consent is undermined. Implementation of technical means in electronic communications software to provide specific and informed consent through transparent and user-friendly settings, can be useful to address this issue. Where available and technically feasible, an end user may therefore grant, through software settings, consent to a specific provider for the use of processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment for one or multiple specific purposes across one or more specific services of that provider. For example, an end-user can give consent to the use of certain types of cookies by whitelisting one or several providers for their specified purposes. Providers of software are encouraged to include settings in their software which allows end- users, in a user friendly and transparent manner, to manage consent to the storage and access to stored data in their terminal equipment by easily setting up and amending whitelists and withdrawing consent at any moment. In light of end-user’s self-determination, consent directly expressed by an end-user should always prevail over software settings. Any consent requested and given by an end-user to a service should be directly implemented, without any further delay, by the applications of the end user’s terminal. If the storage of information or the access of information already stored in the end-user’s terminal equipment is permitted, the same should apply.

(21) Use of the processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment or access to information stored in terminal equipment without the consent of the end-user should be limited to situations that involve no, or only very limited, intrusion of privacy. For instance, consent should not be requested for authorizing the technical storage or access which is necessary and proportionate for the purpose of providing a specific service requested by the end-user. This may include the storing of cookies for the duration of a single established session on a website to keep track of the end- user’s input when filling in online forms over several pages, authentication session cookies used to verify the identity of end-users engaged in online transactions or cookies used to remember items selected by the end-user and placed in shopping basket. In the area of IoT services which rely on connected devices (such as connected thermostats, connected medical devices, smart meters or automated and connected vehicles), the use of the processing and storage capacities of those devices and access to information stored therein should not require consent to the extent that such use or access is necessary for the provision of the service requested by the end-user. For example, storing of information in or accessing information from a smart meter might be considered as necessary for the provision of a requested energy supply service to the extent the information stored and accessed is necessary for the stability and security of the energy network or for the billing of the end-users' energy consumption. The same applies for instance to storing, processing or accessing of information from automated and connected vehicles for security related software updates.

(21aa) In some cases the use of processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment and the collection of information from end-users' terminal equipment may also be necessary for providing a service, requested by the end- user, such as services provided in accordance with the freedom of expression and information including for journalistic purposes, e.g. online newspaper or other press publications as defined in Article 2 (4) of Directive (EU) 2019/790, that is wholly or mainly financed by advertising provided that, in addition, the end-user has been provided with clear, precise and user-friendly information about the purposes of cookies or similar techniques and has accepted such use.

(21a) Cookies can also be a legitimate and useful tool, for example, in assessing the effectiveness of a delivered information society service, for example of website design and advertising or by helping to measure the numbers of end-users visiting a website, certain pages of a website or the number of end-users of an application. This is not the case, however, regarding cookies and similar identifiers used to determine the nature of who is using the site, which always require the consent of the end-user. Information society providers that engage in configuration checking to provide the service in compliance with the end-user's settings and the mere logging of the fact that the end-user’s device is unable to receive content requested by the end-user should not constitute access to such a device or use of the device processing capabilities.

(21b) Consent should not be necessary either when the purpose of using the processing storage capabilities of terminal equipment is to fix security vulnerabilities and other security bugs or for software-updates for security reasons, provided that the end-user concerned has been informed prior to such updates, and provided that such updates do not in any way change the functionality of the hardware or software or the privacy settings chosen by the end-user and the end-user has the possibility to postpone or turn off the automatic installation of such updates. Software updates that do not exclusively have a security purpose, for example those intended to add new features to an application or improve its performance, should not fall under this exception.

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25) Accessing electronic communications networks requires the regular emission of certain data packets in order to discover or maintain a connection with the network or other devices on the network. Furthermore, devices must have a unique address assigned in order to be identifiable on that network. Wireless and cellular telephone standards similarly involve the emission of active signals containing unique identifiers such as a MAC address, the IMEI (International Mobile Station Equipment Identity), the IMSI, the WiFi signal etc. A single wireless base station (i.e. a transmitter and receiver), such as a wireless access point, has a specific range within which such information may be captured. Service providers have emerged who offer physical movements' tracking services based on the scanning of equipment related information with diverse functionalities, including people counting, such as providing data on the number of people waiting in line, ascertaining the number of people in a specific area, referred to as statistical counting for which the consent of end-users is not needed, provided that such counting is limited in time and space to the extent necessary for this purpose. Providers should also apply appropriate technical and organisations measures to ensure the level if security appropriate to the risks, including pseudonymisation of the data and making it anonymous or erase it as soon it is not longer needed for this purpose. Providers engaged in such practices should display prominent notices located on the edge of the area of coverage informing end-users prior to entering the defined area that the technology is in operation within a given perimeter, the purpose of the tracking, the person responsible for it and the existence of any measure the end-user of the terminal equipment can take to minimize or stop the collection. Additional information should be provided where personal data are collected pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. This information may be used for more intrusive purposes, which should not be considered statistical counting, such as to send commercial messages to end-users, for example when they enter stores, with personalized offers locations, subject to the conditions laid down in this Regulation, as well as the tracking of individuals over time, including repeated visits to specified locations.

(25a) Processing the information emitted by the terminal equipment to enable it to connect to another device would be permitted if the end-user has given consent or if it is necessary for the provision of a service requested by the end-user. This kind of processing might be necessary for example for the provision of some IoT related services.

(26) When the processing of electronic communications data by providers of electronic communications services falls within its scope, this Regulation should provide for the possibility for the Union or Member States under specific conditions to restrict by law certain obligations and rights, including by way of derogations, when such a restriction constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard specific public interests, including public security and the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences, or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security and other important objectives of general public interest of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, or a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected to the exercise of official authority for such interests. Therefore, this Regulation should not affect the ability of Member States to carry out lawful interception of electronic communications, including by requiring providers to enable and assist competent authorities in carrying out lawful interceptions, or take other measures, such as legislative measures providing for the retention of data for a limited period of time, if necessary and proportionate to safeguard the public interests mentioned above, in accordance with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union and of the European Court of Human Rights. Providers of electronic communications services should provide for appropriate procedures to facilitate legitimate requests of competent authorities, where relevant also taking into account the role of the representative designated pursuant to Article 3(3).

(27) As regards calling line identification, it is necessary to protect the right of the calling party to withhold the presentation of the identification of the line from which the call is being made and the right of the called party to reject calls from unidentified lines. Certain end-users, in particular help lines, and similar organisations, have an interest in guaranteeing the anonymity of their callers. As regards connected line identification, it is necessary to protect the right and the legitimate interest of the called party to withhold the presentation of the identification of the line to which the calling party is actually connected.

(28) There is justification for overriding the elimination of calling line identification presentation in specific cases. End-users' rights to privacy with regard to calling line identification should be restricted where this is necessary to trace malicious or nuisance calls and with regard to calling line identification and location data where this is necessary to allow emergency services, such as eCall, to carry out their tasks as effectively as possible. Location information established by the terminal equipment, using its built-in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) capabilities or other types of terminal equipment based location data, such as location data derived from the WiFi functionality, may supplement the location data supplied by providers of number-based interpersonal communications services when a call is made to emergency services. The temporary denial or absence of consent of an end-user to access location data provided by the terminal equipment GNSS, for example, because location settings are turned off, shall not prevent the transfer of such information to emergency services for the purposes of facilitating access to such services. Directive 2014/53/EU empowers the Commission to adopt delegated acts requiring that specific categories or classes of radio equipment support certain features ensuring access to emergency services.

(29) Technology exists that enables providers of electronic communications services to limit the reception of unwanted, malicious or nuisance calls by end-users in different ways, including blocking silent calls and other unwanted, malicious and nuisance calls, such as calls originating from invalid numbers, i.e. numbers that do not exist in the numbering plan, valid numbers that are not allocated to a provider of a number-based interpersonal communications service, and valid numbers that are allocated but not assigned to an end-user. Providers of number- based interpersonal communications services should deploy this technology and protect end-users against such calls free of charge. Providers should ensure that end- users are aware of the existence of such functionalities, for instance, by publicising the fact on their webpage.

(30) Publicly available directories means any directory or service containing information on end-users of number-based interpersonal communication services such as name, phone numbers (including mobile phone numbers), email address, home address and includes inquiry services, the main function of which is to enable to identify such end-users. End-users that are natural persons should be asked for consent before their personal data are included in a directory, unless Member States provide that such end-users have the right to object to inclusion of their personal data. The legitimate interest of legal persons requires that end-users that are legal persons have the right to object to the data related to them being included in a directory. End-users who are natural persons acting in a professional capacity should be treated as legal persons for the purpose of the provisions on publicly available directories.

(31) Providers of number-based interpersonal communications services  should inform the end-users who are natural persons of the search functions of the directory and obtain their consent before enabling such search functions related to their personal data. The categories of personal data included in the directory and the categories of personal data on the basis of which the end-user's contact details can be searched should not necessarily be the same.

(32) In this Regulation, direct marketing communications refers to any form of advertising sent by a natural or legal person directly to one or more specific end- users using publicly available electronic communications services.

The provisions on direct marketing communications do should not apply to other form of marketing or advertising that is not sent directly to any specific end-user for reception by that end-user at addresses, number or other contact details, e.g. the display of advertising on a visited website or within an information society service requested by that end-user. In addition to direct communications advertising for the offering of products and services for commercial purposes, Member States may decide that direct marketing communications may include direct marketing communications sent by political parties that contact natural persons via publicly available electronic communications services in order to promote their parties. The same applies to messages sent by other non-profit organisations to support the purposes of the organisation.

(33) Safeguards should be provided to protect end-users against direct marketing communications, which intrude into the privacy of end-users. The degree of privacy intrusion and nuisance is considered relatively similar independently of the wide range of technologies and channels used to conduct these electronic communications, whether using automated calling and communication systems, instant messaging applications, emails, SMS, MMS, Bluetooth, etc. It is therefore justified to require that consent of the end-users who are natural persons is obtained before direct marketing communications are sent to them in order to effectively protect them against the intrusion into their private life. Legal certainty and the need to ensure that the rules protecting against direct marketing communications remain future-proof justify the need to define in principle a single set of rules that do not vary according to the technology used to convey these direct marketing communications, while at the same time guaranteeing an equivalent level of protection for all citizens throughout the Union. However, it is reasonable to allow the use of contact details for electronic message within the context of an existing customer relationship for the offering of similar products or services. Such possibility should only apply to the same company that has obtained the contact details for electronic message in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

(33a) Voice-to-voice direct marketing calls that do not involve the use of automated calling and communication systems are more costly for the sender and impose no financial costs on end-users. Member States should therefore be able to establish and or maintain national systems which allow all or certain types of voice-to-voice calls to end-users who are natural persons and who have not objected, including in the context of an existing customer relationship.

(34) When end-users who are natural persons have provided their consent to receiving direct marketing communications, they should still be able to withdraw their consent at any time in an easy manner and without any cost to them. To facilitate effective enforcement of Union rules on direct marketing communications, it is necessary to prohibit the masking of the identity and the use of false identities, false return addresses or numbers while sending direct marketing communications. Direct marketing communications should therefore be clearly recognizable as such and should indicate the identity of the legal or the natural person sending or the communication and, where applicable, on whose behalf the communication is sent and provide the necessary information for end-users who are natural persons to exercise their right to withdraw their consent to receiving further direct marketing communications, such as valid contact details (e.g. link, e-mail address) which can be easily used by end-users who are natural persons to withdraw their consent free of charge.

(35) Legal or natural persons conducting direct marketing communications through voice- to-voice calls and through calls by automating calling and communication systems should present their identity line on which the company can be called. Member States are encouraged to introduce by means of national law a specific code or prefix identifying the fact that the call is a direct marketing call to improve the tools provided for the end-users in order to protect their privacy in more efficient manner. Using a specific code or prefix should not relieve the legal or natural persons sending direct marketing call from the obligation to present their calling line identification.

(38) Member States should be able to have more than one supervisory authority, to reflect their constitutional, organisational and administrative structure. The designation of supervisory authorities responsible for the monitoring of the application of this Regulation cannot affect the right of natural persons to have compliance with rules regarding the protection of personal data subject to control by an independent authority in accordance with Article 8(3) of the Charter as interpreted by the Court. End-users who are legal persons should have the same rights as end-users who are natural persons regarding any supervisory authority entrusted to monitor any provisions of this Regulation. Each supervisory authority should be provided with the additional financial and human resources, premises and infrastructure necessary for the effective performance of the additional tasks designated under this Regulation.

(39) Each supervisory authority should be competent on the territory of its own Member State to exercise the powers and to perform the tasks set forth in this Regulation. Member States and their supervisory authorities are encouraged to take account of the specific needs of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in the application of this Regulation.

(40) In order to strengthen the enforcement of the rules of this Regulation, each supervisory authority should have the power to impose penalties including administrative fines for any infringement of this Regulation, in addition to, or instead of any other appropriate measures pursuant to this Regulation. This Regulation should indicate infringements and the upper limit and criteria for setting the related administrative fines, which should be determined by the competent supervisory authority in each individual case, taking into account all relevant circumstances of the specific situation, with due regard in particular to the nature, gravity and duration of the infringement and of its consequences and the measures taken to ensure compliance with the obligations under this Regulation and to prevent or mitigate the consequences of the infringement. For the purpose of setting a fine under this Regulation, an undertaking should be understood to be an undertaking in accordance with Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty.

(41) In order to fulfil the objectives of this Regulation, namely to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons and in particular their right to the protection of personal data and to ensure the free movement of personal data within the Union, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty should be delegated to the Commission to supplement this Regulation. In particular, delegated acts should be adopted in respect of the information to be presented, including by means of standardised icons in order to give an easily visible and intelligible overview of the collection of information emitted by terminal equipment, its purpose, the person responsible for it and of any measure the end-user of the terminal equipment can take to minimise the collection. It is of particular importance that the Commission carries out appropriate consultations and that those consultations be conducted in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement on Better Law- Making of 13 April 2016[1]. In particular, to ensure equal participation in the preparation of delegated acts, the European Parliament and the Council receive all documents at the same time as Member States' experts, and their experts systematically have access to meetings of Commission expert groups dealing with the preparation of delegated acts. Furthermore, in order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Regulation, implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission when provided for by this Regulation. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011.

(42) Since the objective of this Regulation, namely to ensure an equivalent level of protection of natural and legal persons and the free flow of electronic communications data throughout the Union, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can rather, by reason of the scale or effects of the action, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality as set out in that Article, this Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective.

(43) Directive 2002/58/EC should be repealed.

HAVE ADOPTED THIS REGULATION

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1 Subject matter

1. This Regulation lays down rules regarding the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms of natural and legal persons in the provision and use of electronic communications services, and in particular, the rights to respect for private life and communications and the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data.

1a. This Regulation lays down rules regarding the protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of legal persons in the provision and use of the electronic communications services, and in particular their rights to respect of communications.

2. The free movement of electronic communications data and electronic communications services within the Union shall be neither restricted nor prohibited for reasons related to the respect for the private life and communications of natural persons and the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data, and for protection of communications of legal persons.

 

3. The provisions of this Regulation particularise and complement Regulation (EU) 2016/679 by laying down specific rules for the purposes mentioned in paragraphs 1 to 2.

Article 2 Material Scope

1. This Regulation applies to:

(a) the processing of electronic communications content and of electronic communications metadata carried out in connection with the provision and the use of electronic communications services;

(b) end-users' terminal equipment information.

(c) the offering of a publicly available directory of end-users of electronic communications services;

(d) the sending of direct marketing communications to end-users

2. This Regulation does not apply to:

(a) activities, which fall outside the scope of Union law, and in any event measures, processing activities and operations concerning national security and defence, regardless of who is carrying out those activities whether it is a public authority or a private operator acting at the request of a public authority;

 

(b) activities of the Member States which fall within the scope of Chapter 2 of Title V of the Treaty on European Union;

(c) electronic communications services which are not publicly available;

(d) activities, including data processing activities, of competent authorities for the purposes of the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security;

(e) electronic communications data processed after receipt by the end-user concerned,

4. This Regulation shall be without prejudice to the application of Directive 2000/31/EC, in particular of the liability rules of intermediary service providers in Articles 12 to 15 of that Directive.

5. This Regulation shall be without prejudice to the provisions of Directive 2014/53/EU.

 

Article 3 Territorial scope and representative

1. This Regulation applies to:

(a) the provision of electronic communications services to end-users who are in the Union,

(aa) the processing of electronic communications content and of electronic communications metadata of end-users who are in the Union;

(b)

(c) the protection of terminal equipment information of end-users who are in the Union.

(cb) the offering of publicly available directories of end-users of electronic communications services who are in the Union;

(cc) the sending of direct marketing communications to end-users who are in the Union.

 

2. Where the provider of an electronic communications service, the provider of a publicly available directory, or a person using electronic communications services to send direct marketing communications, or a person using processing and storage capabilities or collecting information processed by or emitted by or stored in the end-users’ terminal equipment is not established in the Union it shall designate in writing, within one month from the start of its activities, a representative in the Union and communicate it to the competent Supervisory Authority.

2a. The requirements laid down in paragraph 2 shall not apply if activities listed in paragraph 1 are occasional and are unlikely to result in a risk to the fundamental rights of end-users taking into account the nature, context, scope and purpose of those activities.

3. The representative shall be established in one of the Member States where the end-users of such electronic communications services are located.

4. The representative shall be mandated by the provider or person it represents to be addressed in addition to or instead of the provider it represents, in particular, to supervisory authorities, and end-users, on all issues related to processing electronic communications data for the purposes of ensuring compliance with this Regulation.

 

5. The designation of a representative pursuant to paragraph 2 shall be without prejudice to legal actions, which could be initiated against the provider or person it represents.

6. This Regulation applies to the processing of personal data by a provider not established in the Union, but in a place where Member State law applies by virtue of public international law.

Article 4 Definitions

1. For the purposes of this Regulation, following definitions shall apply:

(a) the definitions in Regulation (EU) 2016/679;

(b) the definitions of ‘electronic communications network’, ‘electronic communications service’, ‘interpersonal communications service’, ‘number-based interpersonal communications service’, ‘number-independent interpersonal communications service’, ‘end-user’ and ‘call’ in paragraphs (1), (4), (5), (6), (7), (14) and (31) respectively of Article 2 of Directive (EU) 2018/1972;

(c) the definition of 'terminal equipment' in Article 1(1) of Commission Directive 2008/63/EC;

(d)the definition of ‘information society service’ in point (b) of Article 1 (1) of Directive (EU) 2015/1535.

2. For the purposes of this Regulation, the definition of ‘interpersonal communications service’ referred to in point (b) of paragraph 1 shall include services which enable interpersonal and interactive communication merely as a minor ancillary feature that is intrinsically linked to another service.

2a. For the purposes of this Regulation, the definition of 'processing' referred to in Article 4 (2) of Regulation 2016/679 shall not be limited to processing of personal data.

3. In addition, for the purposes of this Regulation the following definitions shall apply:

(a) ‘electronic communications data’ means electronic communications content and electronic communications metadata;

(b) ‘electronic communications content’ means the content exchanged by means of electronic communications services, such as text, voice, videos, images, and sound;

(c) ‘electronic communications metadata’ means data processed by means of electronic communications services for the purposes of transmitting, distributing or exchanging electronic communications content; including data used to trace and identify the source and destination of a communication, data on the location of the device generated in the context of providing electronic communications services, and the date, time, duration and the type of communication;

(d) ‘publicly available directory’ means a directory of end-users of number-based interpersonal communications services, whether in printed or electronic form, which is published or made available to the public or to a section of the public, including by means of a directory enquiry service and the main function of which is to enable identification of such end-users;

(e) ‘electronic message’ means any message containing information such as text, voice, video, sound or image sent over an electronic communications network which can be stored in the network or in related computing facilities, or in the terminal equipment of its recipient, including e-mail, SMS, MMS and functionally equivalent applications and techniques;

(f) ‘direct marketing communications’ means any form of advertising, whether written or oral, sent via a publicly available electronic communications service directly to one or more specific end-users, including the placing of voice-to- voice calls, the use of automated calling and communication systems with or without human interaction, electronic message etc.;

(g) ‘direct marketing voice-to-voice calls’ means live calls, which do not entail the use of automated calling systems and communication systems;

(h) ‘automated calling and communication systems’ means systems capable of automatically initiating calls to one or more recipients in accordance with instructions set for that system, and transmitting sounds which are not live speech, including calls made using automated calling and communication systems which connect the called person to an individual;

(i) 'direct marketing calls' means direct marketing voice-to-voice calls and calls made via automated calling and communication systems for the purpose of direct marketing.

(j) ‘location data’ means data processed by means of an electronic communications network or service, indicating the geographic position of the terminal equipment of a user of a publicly available electronic communications service;

Article 4a Consent

1. The provisions for consent provided for under Regulation (EU) 2016/679/EU shall apply to natural persons and, mutatis mutandis, to legal persons.

1a. Paragraph 1 is without prejudice to national legislation on determining the persons who are authorised to represent a legal person in any dealings with third parties or in legal proceedings.

2. Without prejudice to paragraph 1, where technically possible and feasible, for the purposes of point (b) of Article 8 (1), consent may be expressed by using the appropriate technical settings of a software application enabling access to the internet placed on the market permitting electronic communications, including the retrieval and presentation of information on the internet.

2aa. Consent directly expressed by an end-user in accordance with Paragraph (2) shall prevail over software settings. Any consent requested and given by an end-user to a service shall be directly implemented, without any further delay, by the applications of the end user’s terminal, including where the storage of information or the access of information already stored in the end- user’s terminal equipment is permitted.

2a. As far as the provider is not able to identify a data subject, the technical protocol showing that consent was given from the terminal equipment shall be sufficient to demonstrate the consent of the end-user according Article 8 (1) (b).

3. End-users who have consented to the processing of electronic communications data in accordance with this Regulation shall be reminded of the possibility to withdraw their consent at periodic intervals of [no longer than 12 months], as long as the processing continues, unless the end-user requests not to receive such reminders.

CHAPTER II PROTECTION OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS OF END-USERS AND OF THE INTEGRITY OF THEIR TERMINAL EQUIPMENT

Article 5 Confidentiality of electronic communications data

Electronic communications data shall be confidential. Any interference with electronic communications data, including listening, tapping, storing, monitoring, scanning or other kinds of interception, surveillance and processing of electronic communications data, by anyone other than the end-users concerned, shall be prohibited, except when permitted by this Regulation.

Article 6 Permitted processing of electronic communications data

1. Providers of electronic communications networks and services shall be permitted to process electronic communications data only if:

(a) it is necessary to provide an electronic communication service; or

(b) it is necessary to maintain or restore the security of electronic communications networks and services, or detect technical faults, errors, security risks or attacks on electronic communications networks and services;

(c) it is necessary to detect or prevent security risks or attacks on end-users’ terminal equipment;

(d) it is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation to which the provider is subject laid down by Union or Member State law, which respects the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms and is a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, and the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security.

2. Electronic communications data shall only be permitted to be processed for the duration necessary for the specified purpose or purposes according to Articles 6 to 6c and if the specified purpose or purposes cannot be fulfilled by processing information that is made anonymous.

3. A third party acting on behalf of a provider of electronic communications network or services may be permitted to process electronic communications data in accordance with Articles 6 to 6c provided that the conditions laid down in Article 28 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 are met.

Article 6a [previous art. 6(3)] Permitted processing of electronic communications content

1. Without prejudice to Article (6) 1, providers of the electronic communications networks and services shall be permitted to process electronic communications content only:

(a) for the purpose of the provision of a service requested by an end-user for purely individual use if the requesting end-user has given consent and where such requested processing does not adversely affect fundamental rights and interests of another person concerned; or

(b) if all end-users concerned have given their consent to the processing of their electronic communications content for one or more specified purposes.

2. Prior to the processing in accordance with point (b) of paragraph 1 the provider shall carry out a data protection impact assessment of the impact of the envisaged processing operations on the protection of electronic communications data and consult the supervisory authority if necessary pursuant to Article 36 (1) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Article 36 (2) and (3) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 shall apply to the consultation of the supervisory authority.

Article 6b [previous art 6(2)] Permitted processing of electronic communications metadata

1. Without prejudice to Article (6) 1, providers of electronic communications networks and services shall be permitted to process electronic communications metadata only if:

(a) it is necessary for the purposes of network management or network optimisation, or to meet technical quality of service requirements pursuant to Directive (EU) 2018/1972 or Regulation (EU) 2015/212020; or

(b) it is necessary for the performance of an electronic communications service contract to which the end-user is party, or if necessary for billing, calculating interconnection payments, detecting or stopping fraudulent, or abusive use of, or subscription to, electronic communications services; or

(c) the end-user concerned has given consent to the processing of communications metadata for one or more specified purposes; or

(d) it is necessary in order to protect the vital interest of a natural person; or

(e) in relation to metadata that constitute location data, it is necessary for scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes, provided that:

i. such data is pseudonymised;

ii. the processing could not be carried out by processing information that is made anonymous, and the location data is erased or made anonymous when it is no longer needed to fulfil the purpose; and

iii. the location data is not used to determine the nature or characteristics of an end-user or to build a profile of an end-user.

(f) in relation to metadata other than location data, it is necessary for scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes, provided that such processing is in accordance with Union or Member State law and subject to appropriate safeguards, including encryption and pseudonymisation, to protect fundamental rights and the interest of the end-users and is in accordance with paragraph 6 of Article 21 and paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 of Article 89 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

2a. Data processed under point e and f of paragraph 1 of this article may also be used for the development, production and dissemination of official national and European statistics to the extent necessary for this purpose and in accordance, respectively, with national or Union law.

2. Without prejudice to Article 6 (3), electronic communications metadata processed pursuant to paragraph 1 (e) shall not be shared by the provider with any third party unless it has been made anonymous.

Article 6c [Previous art 6(2a)] Compatible processing of electronic communications metadata

1. Where the processing for a purpose other than that for which the electronic communications metadata have been collected under paragraph 1 of Articles 6 and 6b is not based on the end-user's consent or on a Union or Member State law which constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard the objectives referred to in Article 11, the provider of electronic communications networks and services shall, in order to ascertain whether processing for another purpose is compatible with the purpose for which the electronic communications metadata are initially collected, take into account, inter alia:

(a) any link between the purposes for which the electronic communications metadata have been collected and the purposes of the intended further processing;

(b) the context in which the electronic communications metadata have been collected, in particular regarding the relationship between end-users concerned and the provider;

(c) the nature of the electronic communications metadata as well as the modalities of the intended further processing, in particular where such data or the intended further processing could reveal categories of data, pursuant to Articles 9 or 10 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679;

(d) the possible consequences of the intended further processing for end-users;

(e) the existence of appropriate safeguards, such as encryption and pseudonymisation.

2. Such processing, if considered compatible, may only take place, provided that:

(a) the processing could not be carried out by processing information that is made anonymous, and electronic communications metadata is erased or made anonymous as soon as it is no longer needed to fulfil the purpose, and

(b) the processing is limited to electronic communications metadata that is pseudonymised, and

(c) the electronic communications metadata is not used to determine the nature or characteristics of an end-user or to build a profile of an end-user, which produces legal effects concerning him or her or similarly significantly affects him or her.

3. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the providers of electronic communications networks and services shall not, without prejudice to Article 6 (3), share such data with any third parties, unless it is made anonymous.

Article 7 Storage and erasure of electronic communications data

1. The provider of the electronic communications service shall erase electronic communications content or make that data anonymous when it is no longer necessary for the purpose of processing in accordance to article 6 (1) and 6a (1).

2. Without prejudice to points (b), (c) and (d) of Article 6 (1), points (c), (d), (e), (f), point (g) of Article 6b, Article 6c and points (b) to (g) of Article 8 (1) the provider of the electronic communications service shall erase electronic communications metadata or make that data anonymous when it is no longer needed for the purpose of providing an electronic communication service.

3. Where the processing of electronic communications metadata takes place for the purpose of billing in accordance with point (b) of Article 6b (1), the relevant metadata may be kept until the end of the period during which a bill may lawfully be challenged, or a payment may be pursued in accordance with national law.

4. Union or Member state law may provide that the electronic communications metadata is retained, including under any retention measure that respects the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms and is a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society, in order to safeguard the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, and the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security, for a limited period. The duration of the retention may be extended if threats to public security of the Union or of a Member State persists.

Article 8 Protection of end-users' terminal equipment information

1. The use of processing and storage capabilities of terminal equipment and the collection of information from end-users’ terminal equipment, including about its software and hardware, other than by the end-user concerned shall be prohibited, except on the following grounds:

(a) it is necessary for the sole purpose of providing an electronic communication service; or

(b) the end-user has given consent; or

(c) it is strictly necessary for providing a service specifically requested by the end- user; or

(d) if it is necessary for the sole purpose of audience measuring, provided that such measurement is carried out by the provider of the service requested by the end- user, or by a third party, or by third parties jointly on behalf of or jointly with provider of the service requested provided that, where applicable, the conditions laid down in Articles 26 or 28 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 are met; or

(da) it is necessary to maintain or restore the security of information society services or terminal equipment of the end-user, prevent fraud or prevent or detect technical faults for the duration necessary for that purpose; or

(e) it is necessary for a software update provided that:

(i) such update is necessary for security reasons and does not in any way change the privacy settings chosen by the end-user,

(ii) the end-user is informed in advance each time an update is being installed, and

(iii) the end-user is given the possibility to postpone or turn off the automatic installation of these updates; or

(f) it is necessary to locate terminal equipment when an end-user makes an emergency communication either to the single European emergency number ‘112’ or a national emergency number, in accordance with Article 13(3).

(g) where the processing for purpose other than that for which the information has been collected under this paragraph is not based on the end-user's consent or on a Union or Member State law which constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard the objectives referred to in Article 11 the person using processing and storage capabilities or collecting information processed by or emitted by or stored in the end-users’ terminal equipment shall, in order to ascertain whether processing for another purpose is compatible with the purpose for which the electronic communications data are initially collected, take into account, inter alia:

(i) any link between the purposes for which the processing and storage capabilities have been used or the information have been collected and the purposes of the intended further processing;

(ii) the context in which the processing and storage capabilities have been used or the information have been collected, in particular regarding the relationship between end-users concerned and the provider;

(iii) the nature the processing and storage capabilities or of the collecting of information as well as the modalities of the intended further processing, in particular where such intended further processing could reveal categories of data, pursuant to Article 9 or 10 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679;

(iv) the possible consequences of the intended further processing for end- users;

(v) the existence of appropriate safeguards, such as encryption and pseudonymisation.

(h) Such further processing in accordance with paragraph 1 (g), if considered compatible, may only take place, provided that:

(i) the information is erased or made anonymous as soon as it is no longer needed to fulfil the purpose,

(ii) the processing is limited to information that is pseudonymised, and

(iii) the information is not used to determine the nature or characteristics of an end-user or to build a profile of an end-user.

(i) For the purposes of paragraph 1 (g) and (h), data shall not be shared with any third parties unless the conditions laid down in Article 28 of Regulation (EU) 2016/697 are met, or data is made anonymous.

2. The collection of information emitted by terminal equipment of the end-user to enable it to connect to another device and, or to network equipment shall be prohibited, except on the following grounds:

(a) it is done exclusively in order to, for the time necessary for, and for the purpose of establishing or maintaining a connection; or

(b) the end-user has given consent; or

(c) it is necessary for the purpose of statistical purposes that is limited in time and space to the extent necessary for this purpose and the data is made anonymous or erased as soon as it is no longer needed for this purpose,

(d) it is necessary for providing a service requested by the end-user.

2a. For the purpose of paragraph 2 points (b) and (c), a clear and prominent notice is shall be displayed informing of, at least, the modalities of the collection, its purpose, the person responsible for it and the other information required under Article 13 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 where personal data are collected, as well as any measure the end-user of the terminal equipment can take to stop or minimise the collection.

2b. For the purpose of paragraph 2 points (b) and (c), the collection of such information shall be conditional on the application of appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure a level of security appropriate to the risks, as set out in Article 32 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, have been applied.

3. The information to be provided pursuant to paragraph 2a may be provided in combination with standardized icons in order to give a meaningful overview of the collection in an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner.

4. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 25 determining the information to be presented by the standardized icon and the procedures for providing standardized icons.

Article 11 Restrictions

1. Union or Member State law may restrict by way of a legislative measure the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in Articles 5 to 8 where such a restriction respects the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms and is a necessary, appropriate and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard one or more of the general public interests referred to in Article 23(1) (c) to (e), (i) and (j) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 or a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected to the exercise of official authority for such interests.

1a. Article 23 (2) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 shall apply to any legislative measures referred to in paragraph 1.

2. Providers of electronic communications services shall establish internal procedures for responding to requests for access to end-users’ electronic communications data based on a legislative measure adopted pursuant to paragraph 1. They shall provide the competent supervisory authority, on demand, with information about those procedures, the number of requests received, the legal justification invoked and their response.

CHAPTER III END-USERS' RIGHTS TO CONTROL ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS

Article 12 Presentation and restriction of calling and connected line identification

1. Where presentation of the calling and connected line identification is offered in accordance with Article [115] of the Directive (EU) 2018/1972, the providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall provide the following:

(a) the calling end-user with the possibility of preventing the presentation of the calling line identification on a per call, per connection or permanent basis;

(b) the called end-user with the possibility of preventing the presentation of the calling line identification of incoming calls;

(c) the called end-user with the possibility of rejecting incoming calls where the presentation of the calling line identification has been prevented by the calling end-user;

(d) the called end-user with the possibility of preventing the presentation of the connected line identification to which the calling end-user is connected.

2. The possibilities referred to in paragraph 1 shall be provided to end-users by simple means and free of charge.

3. Point (a) of paragraph 1 shall also apply with regard to calls to third countries originating in the Union. Points (b), (c) and (d) of paragraph 1 shall also apply to incoming calls originating in third countries.

4. Where presentation of calling or connected line identification is offered, providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall provide information to the public regarding the options set out in paragraph 1 and the exceptions set forth in Article 13.

Article 13 Exceptions to presentation and restriction of calling and connected line identification in relation to emergency communications

1. Regardless of whether the calling end-user has prevented the presentation of the calling line identification, where emergency communications are made to emergency services, providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall override the elimination of the presentation of the calling line identification and the denial or absence of consent of an end-user for the processing of metadata, on a per-line basis for organisations dealing with emergency communications, including public safety answering points, for the purpose of responding to such communications.

1a. Regardless whether the called end-user rejects incoming calls where the presentation of the calling line identification has been prevented by the calling end-user, providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall override this choice, where technically possible, when the calling end-user is an organisation dealing with emergency communications, including public safety answering points, for the purpose of responding to such communications.

3. Notwithstanding Article 8(1), regardless of whether the end-user has prevented access to the terminal equipment’s Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) capabilities or other types of terminal equipment based location data through the terminal equipment settings, when a call is made to emergency services, such settings may not prevent access to GNSS such location data to determine and provide the caller calling end-user's location to emergency services an organisation dealing with emergency communications, including public safety answering points, for the purpose of responding to such calls.

Article 14 Blocking Unwanted, malicious or nuisance calls

1. Providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall deploy state of the art measures to limit the reception of unwanted, malicious or nuisance calls by end-users.

1a. Member States shall establish more specific provisions with regard to the establishment of transparent procedures and the circumstances where providers of number-based interpersonal communication services shall override, or otherwise address, the elimination of the presentation of the calling line identification on a temporary basis, where end-users request the tracing of unwanted, malicious or nuisance calls.

2. Providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall also provide the called end-user with the following possibilities, free of charge:

(a) to block, where technically feasible, incoming calls from specific numbers or from anonymous sources or from numbers using a specific code or prefix referred to in Article 16(3a); and

(b) to stop automatic call forwarding by a third party to the end-user's terminal equipment.

Article 15 Publicly available directories

1. The providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall obtain the consent of end-users who are natural persons to include their personal data in the directory and for inclusion of such data per category of personal data, to the extent that such data are relevant for the purpose of the directory as determined by the provider of the directory.

1aa. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, Member States may provide by law that the inclusion of personal data of an end-user who is a natural person in a publicly available directory can take place provided that he end-user who is a natural person shall have the right to object to such inclusion.

2. The providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall inform end-users who are natural persons whose personal data are in the directory of any search functions that is not based on name or number in the directory and obtain the consent of end-users’ before enabling such search functions related to their own data.

3. The providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall provide end-users that are legal persons with the possibility to object to data related to them being included in the directory.

3a. The providers of number-based interpersonal communications services shall give end-users the means to verify, correct and delete data included in a publicly available directory.

3aa. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1aa to 3a, Member States may provide by law that the requirements under those paragraphs apply to providers of publicly available directories, in addition to or instead of, providers of number-based interpersonal communications services.

4. The possibility for end-users not to be included in a publicly available directory, or to verify, correct and delete any data related to them shall be provided free of charge.

4a. Where the personal data of the end-users of number based interpersonal communications services have been included in a publicly available directory before this Regulation enters into force, the personal data of such end-users may remain included in a publicly available directory, including version with search functions, unless the end-users have expressed their objection against their data being included in the directory or against the use of available search functions related to their data.

Article 16 Unsolicited and direct marketing communications

1. Natural or legal persons shall be prohibited from using electronic communications services for the purposes of sending direct marketing communications to end-users who are natural persons unless they have given their prior consent.

2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, where a natural or legal person obtains contact details for electronic message from end-users who are natural persons, in the context of the purchase of a product or a service, in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679, that natural or legal person may use these contact details for direct marketing of its own similar products or services only if such end-users are clearly and distinctly given the opportunity to object, free of charge and in an easy manner, to such use. The right to object shall be given at the time of collection of such end-users' contact details and, if that end-user has not initially refused that use, each time when a natural or legal persons sends a message to that end-user for the purpose of such direct marketing.

2a. Member States may provide by law a set period of time, after the sale of the product or service occurred, within which a natural or legal person may use contact details of the end-user who is a natural person for direct marketing purposes, as provided for in paragraph.

3. Without prejudice to paragraphs 1 and 2, natural or legal persons using electronic communications services for the purposes of placing direct marketing calls shall present the calling line identification assigned to them.

3a. Member States may require natural or legal person using electronic communications services for the purposes of placing direct marketing calls to present a specific code or prefix identifying the fact that the call is a direct marketing call in addition to the obligation set out in paragraph 3. Member State requiring the use of such a specific code or prefix shall make it available for the natural or legal persons who use electronic communications services for the purposes of direct marketing calls.

4. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, Member States may provide by law that the placing of direct marketing voice-to-voice calls to end-users who are natural persons shall only be allowed in respect of end-users who are natural persons who have not expressed their objection to receiving those communications.

5. Member States shall ensure, in the framework of Union law and applicable national law, that the legitimate interest of end-users that are legal persons with regard to direct marketing communications sent by means set forth under paragraph 1 are sufficiently protected.

6. Any natural or legal person using electronic communications services to send direct marketing communications shall, each time a direct marketing communication is sent:

(a) reveal his or its identity and use effective return addresses or numbers;

(b) inform end-users of the marketing nature of the communication and the identity and contact details of the legal or natural person on behalf of whom the direct marketing communication is sent;

(c)

(d) clearly and distinctly give the end-users who are natural persons a means to object or to withdraw their consent, free of charge, at any time, and in an easy and effective manner, to receiving further direct marketing communications, and shall provide the necessary information to this end. This means shall also be given at the time of collection of the contact details according to paragraph 2. It shall be as easy to withdraw as to give consent.

CHAPTER IV INDEPENDENT SUPERVISORY AUTHORITIES AND ENFORCEMENT

Article 18 Supervisory authorities

0. Each Member State shall provide for one or more independent public authorities meeting the requirements set out in Articles 51 to 54 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 to be responsible for monitoring the application of this Regulation.

Member States may entrust the monitoring of the application of Articles 12 to 16 to the supervisory authority or authorities referred to in the previous subparagraph or to another supervisory authority or authorities having the appropriate expertise.

1ab. The supervisory authorities shall have investigative and corrective powers, including the power to impose administrative fines pursuant to article 23.

1b. Where more than one supervisory authority is responsible for monitoring the application of this Regulation in a Member State, such authorities shall cooperate with each other to the extent necessary to perform their tasks.

2. Where the supervisory authorities are not the supervisory authorities responsible for monitoring the application of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, they shall cooperate with the latter and, whenever appropriate, with national regulatory authorities established pursuant to Directive (EU) 2018/1972 and other relevant authorities.

Article 19 European Data Protection Board

1. The European Data Protection Board, established under Article 68 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, shall have the task to contribute to the consistent application of Chapters I and II and III of this Regulation.

2. To that end, the Board shall have the following tasks:

(a) advise the Commission on any proposed amendment of this Regulation;

(b) examine, on its own initiative, on request of a supervisory authority designated in accordance with Article 18 (0) or on request of the Commission, any question covering the application of this Regulation in relation to Chapters I, II and III and issue guidelines, recommendations and best practices in order to encourage consistent application of this Regulation;

(d) issue guidelines, recommendations and best practices in order to facilitate cooperation, including exchange of information, between supervisory authorities referred to in paragraph 0 of Article 18 and/or the supervisory authority responsible for monitoring the application of Regulation (EU) 2016/679;

(da) issue guidelines, recommendations and best practices in accordance with point (b) of this paragraph to assess for different types of electronic communications services the moment in time of receipt of electronic communications content;

(db) issue guidelines, recommendations and best practices in accordance with point (b) of this paragraph on the provision of consent in the context of Articles 6 to 6b and 8 of this Regulation by end-users who are legal persons and or in an employment relationship;

(e) provide the Commission with an opinion on the icons referred to in paragraph 3 of Article 8;

(h) promote the exchange of knowledge and documentation on legislation on protection of electronic communications of end-users and of the integrity of their terminal equipment as laid down in Chapter II and practice relevant supervisory authorities world wide;

3. Where the Commission requests advice from the Board, it may indicate a time limit, taking into account the urgency of the matter.

4. The Board shall forward its opinions, guidelines, recommendations, and best practices to the Commission and make them public.

5. The Board shall consult the supervisory authorities referred to in Article 18(0) before any of the tasks referred to in paragraph 2.

6. The Board shall, where appropriate, consult interested parties and give them the opportunity to comment within a reasonable period. The Board shall, without prejudice to Article 76 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, make the result of the consultation procedures publicly available.

Article 20 Cross-border cooperation

Each supervisory authority shall contribute to the consistent application of this Regulation throughout the Union and cooperate with each other and with the Commission.

CHAPTER V REMEDIES, LIABILITY AND PENALTIES

Article 21 Remedies

1. Without prejudice to any other administrative or judicial remedy, every end-user shall have the right to an effective judicial remedy in relation to any infringement of rights under this Regulation, the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority and the right to an effective judicial remedy against any legally binding decision of a supervisory authority concerning them.

1a Articles 77-80 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 shall apply mutatis mutandis.

2. Any natural or legal person other than end-users adversely affected by infringements of this Regulation, including a provider of electronic communications services protecting its legitimate business interests, shall have a right to bring legal proceedings in respect of such infringements.

Article 22 Right to compensation and liability

Any person who has suffered material or non-material damage as a result of an infringement of this Regulation shall have the right to receive compensation from the infringer for the damage suffered in accordance with Article 82 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679.

Article 23 General conditions for imposing administrative fines

1. Article 83 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 shall apply mutatis mutandis to infringements of this Regulation.

2. Infringements of the following provisions of this Regulation shall, in accordance with paragraph 1, be subject to administrative fines up to EUR 10 000 000, or in the case of an undertaking, up to 2 % of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher:

(a) the obligations of any legal or natural person who process electronic communications data pursuant to Article 8;

(c) the obligations of the providers of publicly available directories pursuant to Article 15;

(d) the obligations of any legal or natural person who uses electronic communications services pursuant to Article 16.

(e) the obligation to designate a representative pursuant to Article 3 number 2.

3. Infringements of the principle of confidentiality of communications, permitted processing of electronic communications data, time limits for erasure pursuant to Articles 5, 6, and 7 shall, in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, be subject to administrative fines up to 20 000 000 EUR, or in the case of an undertaking, up to 4 % of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher.

4. Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties for infringements of Articles 12, 13 and 14.

5. Non-compliance with an order by a supervisory authority as referred to in Article 18, shall be subject to administrative fines up to 20 000 000 EUR, or in the case of an undertaking, up to 4 % of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher.

6. Without prejudice to the corrective powers of supervisory authorities pursuant to Article 18, each Member State may lay down rules on whether and to what extent administrative fines may be imposed on public authorities and bodies established in that Member State.

7. The exercise by the supervisory authority of its powers under this Article shall be subject to appropriate procedural safeguards in accordance with Union and Member State law, including effective judicial remedy and due process.

8. Where the legal system of the Member State does not provide for administrative fines, this Article may be applied in such a manner that the fine is initiated by the competent supervisory authority and imposed by competent national courts, while ensuring that those legal remedies are effective and have an equivalent effect to the administrative fines imposed by supervisory authorities. In any event, the fines imposed shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive. Those Member States shall notify to the Commission the provisions of their laws which they adopt pursuant to this paragraph by [xxx] and, without delay, any subsequent amendment law or amendment affecting them.

Article 24 Penalties

1. Member States shall lay down the rules on other penalties applicable to infringements of this Regulation in particular for infringements which are not subject to administrative fines pursuant to Article 23, and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented. Such penalties shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

2. Each Member State shall notify to the Commission the provisions of its law which it adopts pursuant to paragraph 1, no later than 8 months after the date set forth under Article 29(2) and, without delay, any subsequent amendment affecting them.

CHAPTER VI DELEGATED ACTS AND IMPLEMENTING ACTS

Article 25 Exercise of the delegation

1. The power to adopt delegated acts is conferred on the Commission subject to the conditions laid down in this Article.

2. The power to adopt delegated acts referred to in Article 8(4) shall be conferred on the Commission for an indeterminate period of time from [the data of entering into force of this Regulation].

3. The delegation of power referred to in Article 8(4) may be revoked at any time by the European Parliament or by the Council. A decision to revoke shall put an end to the delegation of the power specified in that decision. It shall take effect the day following the publication of the decision in the Official Journal of the European Union or at a later date specified therein. It shall not affect the validity of any delegated acts already in force.

4. Before adopting a delegated act, the Commission shall consult experts designated by each Member State in accordance with the principles laid down in the Inter- institutional Agreement on Better Law-Making of 13 April 2016.

5. As soon as it adopts a delegated act, the Commission shall notify it simultaneously to the European Parliament and to the Council.

6. A delegated act adopted pursuant to Article 8(4) shall enter into force only if no objection has been expressed either by the European Parliament or the Council within a period of two months of notification of that act to the European Parliament and the Council or if, before the expiry of that period, the European Parliament and the Council have both informed the Commission that they will not object. That period shall be extended by two months at the initiative of the European Parliament or of the Council.

Article 26 Committee

1. The Commission shall be assisted by the Communications Committee established under Article 118 of Directive (EU) 2018/1972. That committee shall be a committee within the meaning of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011[1].

2. Where reference is made to this paragraph, Article 5 of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 shall apply.

CHAPTER VII FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 27 Repeal

1. Directive 2002/58/EC is repealed with effect from [1August 2022].

2. References to the repealed Directive shall be construed as references to this Regulation.

Article 28 Monitoring and evaluation clause

By [1 August 2024] at the latest, the Commission shall establish a detailed programme for monitoring the effectiveness of this Regulation.

No later than three years after the date of application of this Regulation, and every three years thereafter, the Commission shall carry out an evaluation of this Regulation and present the main findings to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee. The evaluation shall, where appropriate, inform a proposal for the amendment or repeal of this Regulation in light of legal, technical or economic developments.

Article 29 Entry into force and application

1. This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

2. This Regulation shall apply from [24 months from the date of entry into force of this Regulation].

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